Knowledge is of two kinds: intellectual and intuitional. Intellectual knowledge is based on experience, hence it is embedded in relativity. It cannot therefore claim to be absolute. Intuitional knowledge is transcendental in character. It dissects and analyses everything by itself, therefore it is absolute.
The approach of PROUT is subjective approach through objective adjustment. This presupposes a connecting link between intuition and intellect. This connecting link or touching point is called “Bodhi Jiṋána”. With the help of Bodhi Jiṋána, intuitional knowledge can be utilized for solving mundane problems. Thus PROUT is a Bodhi Jiṋána.
Logic is a psychic survey. Such a survey may or may not be correct, therefore it is futile to follow logic blindly. The result of your psychic survey is called your rationality. This psychic survey, embedded in relativity, may or may not be correct. Intuitional vision is the best logic. Intuitional vision should be your guiding ideology. For example, it is an axiomatic truth that everything has come from the Cosmic Father and everything will merge in Him, but this truth is beyond the scope of intellectual logic.
How was capitalism created? Capital is consumable commodities in their potentiality. Intelligent people collect more capital than others in the form of consumable goods, but since this capital cannot be stored for a long time, they began to keep it in the form of money. Such people are called capitalists. These capitalists are the unworthy sons and daughters of the Cosmic Father because they go against the principle of cosmic inheritance. They should be cured of their ailments. To fight capitalism is therefore within your goal. The seed of infinite expression lies within Dharma, but you must nourish it. Capitalists create hindrances on the path of human beings to prevent them from becoming one with the cosmos – to prevent them from becoming great. So capitalism is anti-Dharma and the actions of capitalists are also anti-Dharma.
How can the conduct of the capitalists be rectified? In the realm of morality two forces act side by side. One is the internal urge and the other is external pressure. Each and every object in the universe has a vital force which longs for infinite expression. Átman or the witnessing entity supplies the necessary stamina to fight evil forces, but it requires great external pressure to neutralize the evil forces working against the internal urge. External pressure may come in the form of suggestions, advice, punishment and clash. Capitalists are immoral and are fighting a fratricidal war. Their internal urge is meagre and does not function properly. We have to apply external force to rectify their conduct. Nicely worded advice will not do the job.
Human expressions are trifarious. Human beings have unquenchable, infinite physical longings and out of these physical longings capitalism came into existence. Capitalists toil day and night for money. This may be a natural desire but physical objectivity is finite, hence the infinite desire to accumulate finite physical objects is a psychic ailment. Human beings also have unquenchable, infinite psychic longings, and out of these excessive psychic longings psychic ailments arise and people become abnormal. The object of psychic longings associated with physicalities is also finite, but the object of pure psychic longing is infinite. Your psychic body and physical objectivity are always separate and so the seed of dualism arises. But the attainment of spiritual objectivity means bridging the gulf between the self and the object, and in this attainment lies peace. The psychic ailments mentioned above also lead to clash with others and create many have-nots. We have to divert physical longings to psychic and spiritual longings to avoid a fratricidal war, and thereby safeguard human rights.
In ancient times powerful rájas and mahárájas used to perform yajiṋas or sacrifices to declare that they were heroes, but this was also a form of exploitation. They erected many temples to hide their ill-deeds, not out of devotional spirit. There was an unholy alliance between physical exploiters and intellectual exploiters. Intellectuals have praised these rájas and mahárájas in all ages. Another form of exploitation is the priesthood. Capitalism will never go against the priesthood nor will priests go against capitalism. In order to create inferiority complexes in the minds of the people, intellectuals have composed many stories and myths. These stories are illogical and concocted to exploit the sentiments of the common mass. One glaring instance is the following verse composed by satanic opportunists.
Bráhmańásya mukhamásiit váhurájanobhavat
Madhya tadasya yad vaeshyahpadbhyaḿ shudrojáyata.
“Brahmins came out of the mouth, Kśatriyas were born out of the arms,
Vaeshyas came out of the trunk of the body, and Shúdras were born out of the legs.”
In the capitalist structure, industry or production is governed by the profit motive, but in the Proutistic structure production will be governed by the motive of consumption.
Labour disputes have become a chronic disease everywhere in the world today. In ancient times there was no bonus system. Some large industrialists used to give a bonus out of compassion, but nowadays a bonus has become a right. It is noticeable that in many places the party in power suppresses the labour movement and the party not in power supports it. Strikes are supported by the communists in India and suppressed by them in the USSR.
There may be a temporary solution to this problem by accepting the rights of labourers in management, granting them some dividend out of the net profit, setting apart some amount for reserve funds and sinking funds for creating fresh capital and interest on this capital, and distributing net profits among labourers. But this is not a permanent solution. The question is how can the percentage of the share out of the net profit be fixed? In Bengal, the Bataidars first claimed half and later two thirds of the net profit. This will change with the moving world.
The permanent solution lies in the large scale implementation of the cooperative system and the socialisation of land, industries, trade and commerce. Key industries should be large scale industries. These key industries should be managed and owned by the immediate government, and in order to keep labour relations congenial, a bonus system of work and piece work payments should be adopted. The harder and better the people work, the more profit they will get.
The bonus system of work and piece work payments are two different things. Payment for the time saved in doing a particular piece of work is called the bonus system of work. That is, a particular amount earned by labourers from the profit of the organization on the basis of their labour is called a bonus. Piece work payments are something else. If a piece of work is completed before the fixed time, and in the remaining portion of time extra work is done, then labourers will get extra payment for that extra work. This system is called piece work payment. To take a concrete example, if the time allowed for manufacturing a scissors blade is two hours and the work is actually performed in one and a half hours, the payment for saving half an hours time is called piece work payment. A dividend is defined as a return on the basis of the net profit earned by the organization. In Japan, which is one of the most industrially developed countries, there are only a few labour disputes because work is done according to the bonus system and piece work payments, and industry is mostly managed along lines similar to the cooperative system.
Regarding cooperatives, we must not forget that cooperatives only function properly under a strong government. They cannot function under a weak democratic structure. Before starting cooperatives a psychological environment has to be created. In the Proutistic structure rationalization means less labour, more leisure and more comfort. In order to safeguard the interests of these cooperatives in the field of industry, it has to be emphasised that key industries should be run by the government so that there will not be any occasion for a tool down and the consequent closure of subsidiary industries in the cooperative sector. However, slogans calling for the cooperative movement are untimely in the present system as the psychological background is lacking. If cooperatives are established at the present time, they will simply cause losses to the national wealth. It may be questioned whether it is desirable for a government to engage in commercial concerns, and if so, how can the labour problems in such concerns be solved permanently? In principle governments should not run commercial concerns, but in those cases where it is not possible to run a concern on a cooperative basis, the government should take the lead. However, such concerns should be mostly assembly factories. The manufacture of component parts for these assembly factories should be done through industrial cooperatives. In extreme cases, where industrial cooperatives are unable to manufacture certain components, they should be manufactured by the government. In such concerns there will be no net profit because it is often the question of profit which creates labour problems. The cost of production may be suitably reduced to make it a no-profit, no-loss concern. It is, however, necessary to keep both financial and commercial accounts to ensure that the concern does not run at a loss. If any loss occurs in such a factory it should be converted into an industrial cooperative.
The Zamindary or landlord system has been severely criticized because it suffered from several drawbacks which included the following. First, the peasants under this system had no rights to the land and they were simply tillers. Secondly, Zamindars used to keep large areas of land as personal property. Thirdly, there was a huge margin between the taxes collected by the Zamindars and the revenue they paid to the government.
The abolition of the Zamindary system has not been able to eliminate these drawbacks, rather it has adversely affected government revenue. Although PROUT does not support the Zamindary system, legalisation should have been passed to remove the inherent defects in the Zamindary system rather than abolish it. This should have involved curtailing some powers of the Zamindars and safeguarding the interests of the peasants. Legislation to this effect was passed in Bengal and goes by the name of the Bengal Prajásatwa Bill. It curtailed some powers of the Zamindars and accepted the rights of peasants as the owners of the land. In a backward country like India the government should not have nationalized the Zamindary system. Instead, it should have fixed a ceiling on bank balances and confiscated the savings of the Zamindars fop investment in key industries.
One pertinent question is whether both a ceiling on landed property and a ceiling on bank balances have to be imposed. It goes without saying that both methods have to be adopted, but the latter should precede the former. This will bring immediate cash to the government to help establish new industries on the one hand, and it will check the growth of capitalism on the other. By enforcing land ceilings no direct benefit can be expected to accrue to the nation because the available arable land will not be increased, nor will production be increased, since it is not the function of the government to cultivate land. Such an approach would wound the public sentiment and the public would think that the state had replaced the Zamindars. In the face of food shortages it is not advisable to change land policies immediately.
The huge margin between the revenue collected by the Zamindars and that paid to the state could have been reduced by imposing a tax like income tax on the personal income of the Zamindars.
Another glaring instance of social injustice is the custom of dowry. This is a real disgrace in a civilized society. If we go deeply into the reasons for such an injustice it will be clear that there are two main reasons behind it.
First, dowry occurs where males and females earn disproportionate incomes. The Náyyár and Izave communities of Kerala follow the matrilineal order and hence no dowry is claimed by the males. The Khasia community of Assam follow a similar system. In Burma, though the patrilineal order is in vogue, women are economically independent so they get a dowry.
Secondly, dowry occurs where there is a disproportionate number of males and females. If the number of males is more, females get dowry and vice-versa. In Punjab, the number of males is more than the number of females so the females get a dowry. The situation is similar for Muslims. The false vanity of the aristocracy also causes dowry. Aristocratic people think, “Our family is a high class family, hence we should get a dowry.” In a Proutistic structure there will be no scope for dowry.
It may be asked, how should the property of a father be distributed among his children? While the Dáyábhága system should be adopted everywhere, the rights of female children have to be safeguarded by giving them equal shares with their brothers so that they may not have to lead a life in penury if they become widowed. However, daughters may only enjoy this property during their lifetimes and they should not have the right of ownership. If they have no children they die after the property should revert back to their brothers or their brothers children.
The universe is our common patrimony. This patrimony has to be managed by the Proutists because others may suffer from selfish sentiments or groupism. To enjoy a right and to enjoy the right of management are not the same thing. Since human beings are mostly followers and not leaders, the right of management should be vested in a select few. In every sphere of life – social, economic, political, etc. – a very few intellectualcum-intuitional workers should have the right to manage property and to safeguard the rights of others.
Each and every individual has the inborn right to enjoy our common patrimony, the mundane property. Anyone who violates this fundamental law is a vested interest. Nobody should be allowed to go against this patrimony. If anybody does so, they should be cured of their psychic ailments. The process of curing them may be termed “Dharma Yuddha”.
It is the duty of each Sadvipra to protect the ignorant masses from the fatal hunger for mundane property which is encouraged by self-seeking exploiters. These self-seekers try to hide themselves and their naked brutality under the camouflage of democracy. Really speaking, democracy is a counterfeit bronze coin engoldened by the elixir of high-sounding words.
It has become fashionable today to cry out for nationalism. In fact, nationalism is also a psychic ailment. The supreme broadness lies with the Supreme Self. The broadness of an individual depends on his or her angle of vision – as the angle of vision becomes smaller and smaller, he or she gets more and more mean-minded. Those who think that casteism is worse than nationalism are incorrect. The total population of Brahmins in India is approximately 20 million people and the Malayan population is near 4.5 million. The angle of vision of a Brahmin is bigger than a Malayan nationalist. Persia has a population of 15 million people and Australia has a total population of 7.5 million. The continentalism of Australia is worse than the nationalism of Persia. An Indian nationalist is more mean-minded than a Chinese nationalist. Thus it is universalism and universalism alone that deserves support. In fact universalism is no ism, for it is allpervading and does not favour any group or party interest. The mental projection of a universalist does not know any narrowness. Universalism is the only panacea for all mundane and supramundane ailments. Therefore, a Proutist is necessarily a universalist.
To materialize the concept of universalism a World Government is necessary. This World Government should be a confederation of all the federated states of the world. These federated states will consist of self-sufficient economic units or zones formed entirely on socio-economic and geographical considerations. Economically developed areas have a tendency to exploit economically undeveloped areas and hence federated states should be formed of different units. If we take a concrete example inside India, Vidarbhga, being a Marathi-speaking area, does not want to remain a part of Maharasthra and wants to become a separate state. Another important example is Azarbaizan. The Persian portion of Azarbaizan agitated to merge with the Soviet portion of Azarbaizan to ensure economic development. The different units or zones formed in this way may be redefined and rename for administrative convenience. These units may have certain common factors and these common factors will unite them into federations.
In the initial stage, the World Government will be a law-making body and the different federations will have executive powers to implement the laws passed by the World Government. The federations may or may not fully materialize the laws of the confederation but they must not go against them. The confederation will, however, have some executive power for limited and defined purposes, namely, for maintaining inter-federal peace and tranquillity and for settling inter-planetary disputes. This will mean the maintenance of a world militia under the full control of the confederation. The federation and the units will also maintain a police force to ensure internal law and order.
The economic units or zones will have dictatorial boards. These boards will form one higher board which will be called federated boards. These federated boards will govern the different federations. The collection of these federated boards is called the confederated board or body. This body will look after the confederation as a whole, but will not ignore the interests of any federation.
The problem of language is affecting the human society like a chronic disease. Ignorance of the proper meaning of different languages has made the confusion worse. Language is a medium of expression. There are six stages in the process of expression. The seed of expression is called Parashakti and lies in the Muládhára Cakra (or basic plexus). In the Svádhisthána Cakra (or fluidal plexus), a person mentally visualises the expression. The mental vision of ones expression is called Pashyanti Shakti. In the Mańipura Cakra (or solar plexus) this mental vision is transformed into mental sound which is called Madhyamá Shakti. The person now wants to express that feeling. This endeavour to express the feeling is called Dyotamáná Shakti. It works between the navel area and the throat. In the vocal cord it transforms an idea into language. This is called Vaekharii Shakti. After Vaekharii it is transformed into actual spoken language and is termed Shrutigocará. Thus linguistic differences are manifest only in the sixth stage of expression. In the first five stages there is no distinction or variation in the expression. A great deal of inter-community conflict could be checked if linguists and the mischief-mongers who create language disputes knew this fundamental fact. In essence, it is ignorance that brings untold miseries to humanity.
It is a great folly on the part of Prakrti to create so many languages, but diversity is the law of nature. In the past unde veloped persons used to express their thoughts through gestures and postures. A time will come when there will be no language. With the advancement of science human beings may again adopt new types of postures and gestures, and they may think of using the energy saved by minimizing the use of spoken language for higher pursuits.
Intelligent people will evolve a common world language and will not be guided by false, narrow sentiments. Like all other mundane property, languages are the common property of the Cosmic Father. We should love all these languages, hate none, and adopt one of these languages as the world language. As all languages are our common property, we should not oppose the existence of other languages. We should not brand any language as foreign or national.
In the present system the English language deserves to be the world language because it is scientific and widely spoken. It would be a great folly for any government to deny this fact. With the change of time future generations may select any other language as the world language. Thus we should adopt a common lingua franca for the mutual exchange of ideas. For this purpose English may be accepted as the world lingua franca for some time more. We should however feel that all the languages of the world are our own languages. No language should be treated as indigenous, foreign or national, and nobody should treat the world language as a foreign language and discourage its propagation.
In the present world there are four types of scripts – Indo Aryan, Semitic, Occido-Aryan and Mongolo-Chinese scripts.
The Mongolo-Chinese scripts are pictorial scripts – all the letters of the scripts are pictures. They contain about 1055 letters. In the Occido-Aryan scripts there are 20 to 35 letters. In the Indo-Aryan scripts there are about 50 letters, and in the Semitic scripts there are 20 to 30 letters.
The Chinese and Japanese practice of using Romanized Mongolo-Chinese script is unscientific.
Arabic, Persian, Urdu, Sindhi, Kashmiri, etc. come under the Semitic scripts and are written from right to left. This is difficult to write and takes a long time to print. Malaya has abandoned Arabic script and adopted Roman script to overcome this difficulty.
The scripts of Tibet and South-East Asia come under the Indo-Aryan scripts. They are quite good but difficulties arise in joining letters. Through practice it has been experienced that Roman script is the best script. It is the most scientific. Those who oppose it do so out of local sentiments. Proutists wont go against any local script, but they will encourage the most scientific script as the world script. At present Roman script is the most scientific script. Future generations may evolve a new script.
Culture is a vague term. It is the collective name for different expressions of life. People eat, enjoy hospitality, laugh on some occasions and shed tears on others, and thereby express life through various actions. The collective name of all these actions is culture. The particular expressions of life which are not considered beneficial to others are called Krśt́i or culture. To take a very common example, an English family, out of hospitality, may offer beef to an Indian guest who may not like it. The term Saḿskrti also means culture. It is used in a good sense and is beneficial for all.
According to PROUT all of society has the same culture. There are local variations in the mode or state of cultural expression, but the expression is universal. While everybody eats, some eat by hand, others by stick and still others by spoon. Indian dance is based on Mudrá or dance postures, and European dance is based on rhythm, but they do not represent two different cultures.
Local variations will diminish if there is a close blending between different groups of people, because this will create common customs. In Nepal there is a blending of Hindu and Buddhist customs. In Bengal there is a blending of Aryan and Dravidian customs. These local variations are called customs. Thus local modes of expression bearing local or group specialities are customs, but the expression itself is culture. Therefore it is a mistake to readjust boundaries on the basis of language and culture. Indian culture and the culture of the world are one and the same. Readjusting boundaries on the basis of customs is not possible for customs may differ within the same locality.
FAMILY PLANNING AND BIRTH CONTROL
Vested interests do not favour population growth because this will mean sharing mundane property at the cost of their hoarding. Capitalism would like the extinction of the intellectual class as this would give it free scope for exploitation. The intellectual class usually belongs to the middle income group. Capitalists encourage family planning and birth control to check the growth of this middle class, thus these measures are a creation of the capitalist order.
Due to age-old superstitions the common people does not take help of these measures. It is the middle class intellectuals who adopt these practices and become the victims of them. A Proutistic order would vehemently oppose this move. There is immense potential for maintaining the population of the world. By scientific advancement it may be possible for human beings to live on tablets. The real glory of humanity lies in creating conditions for adjustment with natural processes rather than in curbing normal processes by artificial measures.
Artificial sterilisation means making males or females artificially sterile. This has certain adverse effects on the mind and body of human beings. Sterilisation brings glandular changes and changes in the hormone secretion of the glands which ultimately affects mental expression. Due to these changes a man may become like a eunuch. According to PROUT only severely handicapped people and born criminals should be sterilised.
A day is sure to come when human beings will make test-tube babes in laboratories. When this practice is widespread nature will snatch away the reproductive or genetory power from men and women, in the same way as physical changes have evolved in human beings from the original form of Australopithecus. It is interesting to discuss the coming days of human civilization when the reproductive powers of humanity will be seized and babies uill be produced in laboratories.
It is a general instinct in human beings to create something. Inspired by this instinct, people create new things, make new inventions and undertake research. It is out of this creative urge that human beings produce children. This creative urge, when utilized for realizing the Macrocosm or the Cosmic Mind within the self, is called prema or love. This realization is achieved through spiritual practice or sádhaná. Otherwise the creative instinct is called kama or sexual impulse. An important fraction of this creative urge is wasted in producing children. When laboratory babes are produced and the reproductive power of human beings is snatched away by Prakrti, the surplus creative urge can be diverted to the creation of good things, resulting in better discoveries, better inventions and better pursuits of life. This aspect of utilization has never been conceived of before. Never before has anyone thought of the enormous all-round potentiality of human beings. PROUT is therefore a new theory.
There will be two kinds of laboratory babes – mechanical and biological. Mechanical babes will be like dolls operated by electric power. The different organs of these babes can be put into action by different substations. These substations may be located within the body. These babes will have no sex difference or nervous system. Being bereft of a nervous system they will not be able to do sádhaná, and they will not experience pain and pleasure. Nor will they be able to reproduce. They will serve human beings as silent and obedient servants according to the directions of their masters.
Compared to mechanical babes, biological babes will be perfect. Ova and spermatozoa, both being chemical compounds, can be created in a laboratory. Embryos, created by the fusion of spermatozoa and ova, can also be developed in a laboratory. Babes created by such a method will be called biological babes. The entire body, including the brain, can be created, but it is beyond the scope of human endeavour to create mind. As in the natural evolution of human beings, nature will put a bodiless mind into the embryo of the laboratory babes. This explains why a laboratory babe will not be free from saḿskáras or the reactions to past actions. With the development of medical science, laboratory babes can be given a long life in comparison to normal human beings. It may be possible for future humans to disconnect their limbs and move anywhere freely with their brain only. The different parts of the body of a biological babe can be replaced, but the brain cannot be replaced, for it is a brain with a particular set of saḿskáras, and hence replacement of the brain would mean replacement of the personality. The brain is a collection of nerve cells, the totality of which is the personality. It is not possible to change the brain without changing the nerve cells and consequently the personality.
With the advent of biological babes, Prakrti will snatch away the reproductive power of human beings and hence they will not be able to reproduce. Instead, they will simply create more laboratory babes. Biological babes will not have much attachment, though they will be subject to pleasure and pain. They will not be required to undergo much physical struggle because through scientific inventions a tablet may be sufficient to sustain them for days together. They will be bereft of family ties, as laboratory babes will be produced in laboratories from chemical compounds. They will gradually develop a tendency of aversion to worldly enjoyment. It is not difficult to envisage a day when laboratory babes may think that nature has lost all its charm, that life is not worth living, and that there is even no use in eating. It is better we do not think further on this. However, it should not be lost sight of that laboratory babes will be great sádhakas or spiritual aspirants, as they will be more conscious of their imperfections. Hence, the more leisure time they have the more sádhaná they will do.
Most political leaders are either physical or intellectual criminals. Common human beings have to be protected from the clutches of these criminals.
Proutists have to fight against todays party politics. Proutists are not against politics or political science, but they have to fight against professional politicians. Only Sadvipras have the right to engage in politics; other people should be swept out from the field of politics. Political leaders depend on physical power. Though they talk of non-violence, they are guarded by the police force. Physical power is the crudest manifestation of energy. Sadvipras will use intuitional power – intellectual and physical power will work as their slaves, to be used according to the indications of intuitional power. It therefore goes without saying that a Sadvipra is stronger than a political leader.
Fight is the essence of life. Biologically, life is an expression of inner stamina, and externally or physically, it is a ceaseless fight to restore an unstable equilibrium. Anywhere and everywhere in the universe there is conflict. Why? If one looks at the process of creation, one will observe that creation originated from the nucleus. In the first phase of creation, that is, the phase of expansion, it is Avidyá or material force which supplied stamina to the Cosmic Mind, which is the cause of the process of creation. However, it cannot be denied that Vidyá or spiritual force is totally absent in this phase. In fact, in the struggle between Vidyá and Avidyá the former is suppressed by the latter and the resultant is expansion from the original nucleus. In the second phase, namely the phase of withdrawal, it is Vidyá which supplies the life juice for an interial move to the nucleus. Here also Avidyá is fighting a losing battle. In essence, in every sphere there is fight between Vidyá and Avidyá, and the resultant is interial or exterial progress. When Avidyá wins the process of crudification goes on; when Vidyá wins the process of introversion goes on.
Everywhere in the manifested or unmanifested universe there is a ceaseless fight going on between Vidyá and Avidyá. For running a government we require strong military and police forces, for in society there is also the fight between Vidyá and Avidyá. Even within ones self such a fight will continue. Those countries which cry for disarmament are also preparing within for war. Even after the establishment of a universal government we will require military and police forces for maintaining peace.
THE EDUCATION SYSTEM
In a democratic system non-educationalist politicians poke their noses into university affairs. They do not know what education is, but they interfere to create a sentiment amongst the people to gain support for the particular ism they preach. They have no other motivation. In the democratic system public support has to be purchased to secure votes and this is the reason why politicians make an all out effort to create sentiments in the minds of the people. In communist countries, no other ism other than Marxism can be preached. People are forced to support it. Institutions which have educational value should be controlled by educationalists and not by politicians. Educationalists should also control the radio, otherwise the party in power will have the opportunity to propagate their ism through the radio system, just as they do in the books approved by university boards.
Ánanda Parivára or establishing a universal spiritual family involves not only a World Government but also a Universal Government. More correctly it is a universal social order. The question is, how can such a Parivára be established? This will certainly come through revolution which may be democratic or undemocratic; or it may be a pyramidical, palace or nuclear revolution. Among all the types of revolution, nuclear revolution is the best. The nucleus of creation is Cosmic Consciousness. It is also the goal of revolutionaries, and whatever they do by way of revolution with this goal in mind leads them to the culminating point of their lifes march. Revolution must have an ideological goal. In essence, revolution means controlling all the three nuclei of the universe – physical, psychic and spiritual.
It is possible to make people conscious of Proutistic ideas in a democracy. This consciousness will have a repercussion in elections. Even before elections are held this consciousness may launch a revolution to change the social order.
Sadvipras and moralists are not synonymous. Sádhakas or spiritual aspirants who control the nucleus of the social order are called Sadvipras. Sadvipras will control the nucleus and check exploitation by one class over others. If necessary they may accelerate the speed of the social cycle by the application of tremendous force and bring revolution. By a normal process, when Vaeshya domination exploits the other classes in society, Sadvipras will bring about revolution in the social order and establish Kśatriya domination.
Each and every individual wants security from the state and the demand for security is always increasing. Increased responsibility means increased authority. In ancient times the only duty of the state was to protect people from internal and external chaos. Now, as a result of ever-increasing demands, the responsibility of the state has increased and its authority has also increased. In ancient times no body demanded food or employment from the government. There were no strikes and no public meetings. Now people want the state to realize its responsibility, but they do not want it to interfere in any matter.
PROUTs view is that we must not go against fundamental public interests or against the fundamental theory. The fundamental theory is that with increased responsibility the authority of the state should also increase, but while operating its authority the state should not go against public sentiments. The fundamental public interest is that the minimum requirements of life should be guaranteed.
It may be questioned whether it is wise for any government to guarantee the minimum requirements. If the state is to supply cereals, pulses, salt, gram, ghee, butter, etc. to all people then naturally the state has to institute some process of control which people may not like. Hence PROUTs view is that people should be guaranteed the provision of sufficient purchasing power to meet these requirements. In that case the state need not adopt control measures. The other disadvantage of guaranteeing the supply of minimum requirements is that if consumable goods are supplied to everyone, people will become lethargic. They should therefore be supplied with purchasing power in exchange for their work according to their physical, psychic or spiritual capacity.
Diversity is the law of nature. So there cannot be any hard and fast rule about guaranteed minimum requirements. They will vary according to time, space and person. A few persons with extraordinary physical, metaphysical or intellectual ability may demand something more than ordinary people. Special amenities have to be provided for them. Certain items like food, housing, education, clothing and medical facilities are minimum requirements.
Nothing is stationary; everything is moving. So the minimum requirements and special amenities will also undergo changes with the changes in time, space and person. What should be the approach of Proutists? There should be a never-ending endeavour to minimize the gap between minimum requirements and special amenities. Minimum requirements will take the place of special amenities and extraordinary persons will get more items as special amenities. The third Five Year Plan prepared by the planning commission of India presents an unwholesome picture – it presents unsystematic and unplanned government activities and the planned exploitation by vested interests. Though there has been inordinately high investment, the purchasing power of labourers has not been sufficient for them to meet the minimum requirements. Hence, while on the one hand labourers received less consumable goods due to less purchasing power, on the other hand entrepreneurs have captured excessive purchasing power and consumable goods causing excessive disparities in wealth. Economic balance has been upset. The major part of the capital investment went to the entrepreneurs and a microscopic fraction went to the labourers. There is therefore no middle class people in India of the type that existed in pre-independence days. Today well-dressed labourers have become the so-called middle class.
Human unity is purely an ideological unity, which means unity in the psychic sphere. Where there is psychic unity, physical unity will also occur. In the realm of unity, unity is always psychic – ideological unity means unity in the subtlest level of the mind. However, psychic or ideological unity may be affected if we encourage the exploitation of one group by another. So to avoid this there should not be any scope for exploitation in society. And to ensure this we have to start a new order to safeguard the interests of the exploited masses. So for a proper social synthesis what we require is a common philosophy of life; that is, ideological unity. But to check exploitation in the physical sphere requires something more than this, and this something more comprises a common constitutional system, a common penal code, and the availability of the minimum essentialities of life.
These things should be provided for the entire human society, as they are inter-linked with one another. Hence till now these things were based on peoples faith, local manners, customs, usages, etc. Generally local manners and customs do not go against cardinal human principles but sometimes they do go against them. Legal structures were prepared on the basis of these faiths. Hence up till now there have been certain differences between sin and crime. Legal structures do not totally follow the system of usages, but only follow them to some extent. For example, Islamic customs say that to accept interest is a sin, but this is not a crime in Islamic countries according to the law.
PÁPA AND PUŃYA
To act according to the dictates of Yama and Niyama or cardinal principles of morality is Puńya or virtue; to act against them is Pápa or sin. Vyasa has given a definitive interpretation of Pápa and Puńya in the following verse:
Aśt́ádasha purańeśu Vyásasya vacanádvayam
Paropakáráh puńyáya pápáya parapiid́anam
“Of all the eighteen mythological texts, only two sentences of Vyása are most important. They are, ‘Doing good to others is virtue’, and ‘Doing harm to others is vice’.”
The central idea in Puńya is to serve the collective interest, to accelerate the speed of the collective body; to retard the speed of the collective body is Pápa.
PROUTs view is that there should be no difference between sin and crime, and hence the penal code should be prepared on the basis of human cardinal principles. Regarding the term “human cardinal principles”, to act according to the dictates of Yama and Niyama is to act according to cardinal human principles and to go against them is to act against cardinal human principles. To violate Yama and Niyama is both a sin and a crime. Proutists should have nothing to do with local faiths or customs while framing the legal structure of human society.
You know that nothing is perfect in this universe of relativity. So it is quite natural that the judicial system of the world, whether in the past, present or future, can never be perfect. Therefore nobody should be given capital punishment on the basis of this imperfect system. Each and every individual, whether they are a criminal or not, can claim a chance to rectify their conduct from the society. So in PROUTs legal structure everybody should get ample scope for rectifying their character and conduct. If a person is condemned to capital punishment, he or she wont get such scope, so PROUT denounces this sort of punishment. But in very special cases, where a person has become a demon and is going against the collective interest and there is no chance of rectification, circumstances may arise which warrant capital punishment. For example, during war this exception may sometimes be permissible. But generally we should not support this punishment on principle. Punishment should be appropriate to the offense.
The World Government should have one constitutional and legal structure and it should maintain a world police and military force.
UNITY AND SYNTHESIS
In the practical sphere PROUT adopts the common factors amidst divergent views, and imposes these common factors on groups or bodies with conflicting interests by discouraging fissiparous tendencies. Thus PROUT advocates unity and synthesis in the face of diversity.
If we analyse recent historical developments we can see that wherever fissiparous tendencies arise and are allowed to dominate social life, disunity and exploitation result. Let us take some examples.
While PROUT advocates that all people have the right to settle anywhere in the universe, it may be questioned whether the Chinese infiltration of Tibet can be supported on this ground. The reply is definitely “no” because this is an intentional infiltration – it is an expansionist move.
Similarly should one support Nepalese expansion in the eastern states of Sikkim and Bhutan? If we trace back through history we find that the Nepalese migrated from Nepal because of famine and for no other reason. Hence, this migration should not be criticized. However, recently a few persons have started a “Maha Nepal” movement. The propagandists of Maha Nepal are neither the friends of Nepal nor of India. The reaction to this movement will go against the interests of Nepalese settlers. By using the same logic as these protagonists India may also claim the Bhojpuri, Maithili and Bengali speaking areas of Nepal Terai. But such a situation would certainly be undesirable.
The case of the Jews who expanded into Palestine is similar. Palestine originally belonged to the Jews and the Arabs drove them out.
Likewise, the Pakistan infiltration into India cannot be treated as a justified move. The planned way in which this infiltration is going on indicates that it is motivated by expansionism.
A proposal to form India into a confederation consisting of three zones was put forward by Sir Stafford Cripps before independence. Of these zones, one would consist of Assam and Bengal, another of the Punjab, Baluchistan, the Frontier Province and Sind, and the third of the remaining parts of undivided India and called “India”. The Muslims accepted this proposal because they knew that they would outnumber other communities in the two zones besides “India” within a short period. However, the Assamese did not agree to this proposal.
In the western corner of India there is a move for Punjabi Suba. This is the outcome of the cry for linguistic states by some respectable all-India leaders. These leaders noted that certain other leaders are sympathetic to Muslims, so they proclaimed Punjabi Suba. Their intention is to create an independent Punjab. In the past they launched a campaign for Sikhistan. However, large numbers of Sikhs only live in the northern and western Punjab. Moreover, there is practically no difference between Hindus and Sikhs as they speak the same language and are guided by the same Hindu Code. Before independence there were 57% Muslims, 30% Hindus and 13% Sikhs in the Punjab. Now there are 70% Hindus and 30% Sikhs. The demand for Punjab Suba, though inwardly communal in character, outwardly appears to be a demand for a linguistic state. Those leaders who once supported the idea of a linguistic state are now afraid of the demands of the Sikhs. This is a funny occurrence indeed!
Fissiparous forces always create disunity and exploitation in collective life. To counteract these fissiparous forces, PROUT encourages those common factors amidst divergent views which lead to unity and synthesis.
THE FIVE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF PROUT
(1) No individual should be allowed to accumulate any physical wealth without the clear permission or approval of the collective body.
A person accumulating physical wealth without the permission of the collective body is certainly going against the interests of the collective body. This principle states that individual liberty should not go against the interests of the collective body. This may involve certain restrictions on individual liberty, but since the minimum requirements of life and special amenities will be guaranteed, this should not cause any difficulties to the people.
(2) There should be maximum utilization and rational distribution of all mundane, supramundane and spiritual potentialities of the universe.
This universe is our common patrimony. Hence all the mundane, supra-mundane and spiritual potentialities should be utilized in the best possible way. Nothing should remain unutilized.
(3) There should be maximum utilization of the physical, metaphysical and spiritual potentialities of the unit and collective bodies of the human society. Different people are endowed with physical, intellectual and spiritual potentialities. They should be encouraged to serve the society with their respective capacities. In the same way the collective body should also be encouraged to serve society. For example, The Gorkhas are a fighting race, so they should be utilized for special work. Similarly, Germans have an inclination for scientific discoveries and research, so they should be encouraged in this direction.
(4) There should be a proper adjustment amongst these physical, metaphysical, mundane, supramundane and spiritual utilisations.
If a particular person is endowed with all three potentialities and if only their physical services are utilized, then they may not be able to serve the society with their intellectual or spiritual potentialities. So there should be proper adjustment in the process of encouraging service from individuals or collective bodies.
(5) The method of utilization should vary in accordance with the changes in time, space and person, and the utilization should be of a progressive nature.
Take a particular example. Suppose a physically strong person serves the society as a rickshaw puller or a market porter. As the rickshaw may become out dated some day, the method of utilizing their physical strength should vary. If a person is intellectually developed but has the same physical strength as others, their intellectual potentiality should be utilized. Thus the process of utilization will not be the same for all people. Better methods of utilization should be continually developed, but the process of utilization should be progressive in nature.